“Whiplash injury” commonly occurs in a rear-end collision where a front car is hit from behind by a second car. In the 1970s, researchers concluded that the injury was due to the occupant”s head being whipped back over the top of the seat as the car was slammed forward. As a result of this finding, head restraints were built into cars, yet neck injuries in rear-end collisions continued to occur. In a recent test to study neck injury in rear-end collisions, a volunteer was strapped to a seat that was then moved abruptly to simulate a collision by a rear car moving at 10.5 km/h. Figure 2-14a gives the accelerations of the volunteer”s torso and head during the collision, which began at time t = O. The torso acceleration was delayed by 40 ms because during that time interval the seat back had to compress against the volunteer. The head acceleration was delayed by an additional 70ms.  What was the torso speed when the head began to accelerate?


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