Civilization of Greece Essay

Paper Instructions
I am looking for answers to the questions below 🙂 It’s from the texbook “Western Civilizations” Volume 1, by Joshua Cole and Carol Sumes
1. What aspects of the body does the kouros emphasize? If this is intended to be a model of Greek manhood, what values would it convey to temporary youths?
2. Is this a representation of the yound man as he was when living, or in death? How do your conclusions about the ideal of male beauty change if this is a glorification of the death?
3. Compare this image (image of Kouros) to the values expressed in the verses by Tyrtaeus of Sparta on “The Beautiful and the Good”. How do these two perspectives complement one another?
4. How does Tyrtaeus characterize defeat? How does this poem (“the beautiful and the Good”) exemplify the values and tactics of hoplite warfare?
5. Why is so much emphasis placed on physical beauty and youth? What other qualities are associated with the word Kalos? Why is old age potentially aischros?
6. How does this ideal of male beauty compare with that made visible in the kouros of Anavyssos?
7. Reading the fragments from “songs of Sappho”, How does Sappho use stories from the older tradition she has inherited to address her own concerns? How does the perspective of the female poet transform masculine ideas about heroism, beauty, warfare, aging?
8. What are the challenges of working with such fragmentary sources as these (from the “songs of Sappho”)? IF these were the only pieces of evidence to survive from Archaic Greece, what conclusions could you draw about the society and its values?
9. Socrates actually refused to teach the art of “making the weaker argument defeat the stronger”. But in The Clouds, Aristophanes shows him teaching how “to win any case at all”. Why were the powers of persuation considered potentially dangerous in democratic Athens? Why might Aristophanes choose to represent Socrates in this way?
10. How do the arguments of Plato’s Socrates compare to those of Aristophanes’ character?
11. How does Socrates’ sense of honor and his duty toward the polis compare to that of Tyrtaeus of Sparta?

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