Multiple-Choice Questions

I got Multiple-Choice and true false Questions about Judaism, you need to read the chapter and the summery before you answer, please make sure about the correct answer because  its exame.


Chapter Three

The Many Stories of Judaism: Sacred and Secular


The objective of this chapter is to understand both the unity and diversity of Judaism, with particular focus on examining both the secular and religions forms of Judaism in relation to modernity and postmodern trends. The monotheism of both Christianity and Islam has its roots in Judaism, but while Christianity teaches the concept of original sin, that concept does not exist in either Islam or Judaism. In the case of Judaism, the ideal of life is living in harmony with the will of God, and God gave Jews a gift to tip the balance between good and evil in favor of good. The gift was the dual Torah, the sacred oral and written teachings that established the covenant with Israel, making them a holy people. For premodern Rabbinic Judaism, to choose to walk in the way of God was to follow his 613 commandments. But within the diversity of modern Judaism, the one path has opened onto many paths.




Four major movements emerged in modern Judaism, each one trying to preserve an essential core of Judaism. For Reform Jews, the essence is the ethics of Judaism, and beliefs in the supernatural and traditional Jewish rituals can be changed as needed. For Conservative Jews, the essence lies in rituals, and beliefs in the supernatural can be changed as needed. For Orthodox Jews, both beliefs in the supernatural and the rituals are essential, yet they still allow for some parts of a Jew’s life being conducted in the secular world. For the ultra-Orthodox movements, only a segregated Jewish community where premodern Jewish laws and beliefs prevail exclusively is acceptable. The ultra-Orthodox work to recapture the way of premodern Jews, and they reject all other forms of Judaism and all pluralism. There is only one truth and one way of life.

Since the mid-1970s, the ultra-Orthodox have operated in Israel with an influence much greater than their minority numbers would suggest. All ultra-Orthodox Jews share in the desire to make the public life of the secular state of Israel more religiously observant; however, within the ultra-Orthodox movement there is diversity of approach, ranging from those who reject all political forms of Zionism to those who embrace a religious messianic Zionism.


Premodern Judaism


The people of Israel—really a collection of tribes—suffered under weak leadership until David, the second king over Israel, who established Israel as a nation. For the brief period of time that David and then his son Solomon reigned, Israel claimed to be the greatest nation in the Middle East.

After the time of King David, from the eighth century BCE forward, it was with the teachings of the prophets that Jewish monotheism became fully formed, moving the people’s thinking of Israel’s tribal God as one god among many to viewing God as the creator of all things and all peoples. This God would, when necessary, use other nations to punish Israel if they failed to keep the covenant, which is exactly how the misfortunes of Israel came to be interpreted. Jews came to believe that their very existence was dependent on their commitment to the covenant.

The great crisis of the Babylonian exile and the amazing and surprising return from that exile formed the mythic pattern of Judaic thought and experience. Every story, before and after, is told through the lens of the exile and return and is meaningfully integrated into Jewish identity.

The destruction of the temple in 70 CE brought to an end the diversity of various Jewish sects and movements that had emerged during the first century. The sect of the Pharisees was one of the few to survive, and it was these former teachers that now provided new leadership. They were responsible for helping Jews forge a new identity, that is, to see themselves as Jews apart from the land and the temple. In the new model, the center of Jewish life shifted from written Torah to the oral tradition, from priest to rabbi, from temple to synagogue, and from temple altar to family table. They taught that God was a loving, personal father and that people were to practice acts of loving kindness, representing an emphasis on ethics. The rabbinic doctrine of God’s revelation through the dual Torahs—written and oral—became the normative pattern of Judaism for the next 1,800 years.

Between the second and fifth centuries, insights were taken from the oral Torah and written down, which became known as the Talmud. The Talmudic tradition dominated until the emergence of modernization in the nineteenth century. The rabbis Hillel and Shammai are given credit for shaping the Talmudic tradition of dialogue and disputation. In fact, such dialogue by Hillel’s students gave rise to the Mishnah, the writings that codify the wisdom of the oral Torah and form the core of the Talmud. The tradition of commentary that Hillel’s students in particular started continues to this day and is integral to the identity of Judaism.

It was the writings that the Pharisees revered and some older writings that were selected to make up Judaism’s canon, which includes the Pentatouch, the books of the prophets, historical writings, and wisdom literature.

The Talmud is said to have been completed by the sixth century, but in reality it is never complete. That is because the Talmud is meant to be studied and debated in a communal setting, thus leaving it open to continuous development. As a matter of fact, it isn’t even the point when studying the Talmud to reach a conclusion. Rather, Talmudic debate is a form of religious ritual that can bring the student of Torah to experience God’s word directly.

In this model, the rabbi serves as the living link between the people and the presence of God. The rabbi is considered to be so close to God that the pattern of his life and his performance of healings and miracles reveal the presence of God. He is also the organizer and leader of the community, to whom everyone turns for guidance and wisdom.

The status of Jews and their treatment deteriorated as Christians gained dominance after the fall of the Roman Empire. Discrimination and persecution became routine. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Jews in Western Europe benefited when the splintered groups of Christians fought among themselves; that distraction gave Jews temporary relief from violence from Christians. But at the same time, in Eastern Europe new waves of violence broke out against Jews, and everywhere across Europe the continuing existence of Jews was seen as “the Jewish problem.” Only in Rome were Jews not persecuted for being Jewish. The colonial domination of Jews by Christians did not really end until the establishment of the state of Israel in the twentieth century.

Kabbalistic mysticism emerged in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, a time of intense persecution for Jews. This powerful mystical response to persecution and expulsion, especially as later adapted by Hasidism, was naturally a threat to the established rabbinic emphasis on Talmudic study. But eventually, Hasidic mysticism and Talmudic study were blended and the Hasidic practice of totally immersing oneself in community life, in time, the mystics proved that they actually brought an element of rejuvenation to Judaism. By the nineteenth century Rabbinic Judaism had accepted the Hasidic movement and considered it to be an authentic expression of the way of Torah.




The first “modern” form of Judaism to emerge during the Enlightenment movement in Europe was Reform Judaism. Reform Judaism was very open to secular society, rejected the Talmud as revelation, rejected belief in a literal coming of the messiah, and renounced any desire to return to the land of Israel. By way of rejecting the positions of the Reform movement, the next movement to emerge was Orthodox Judaism. While Reform Judaism believed in accepting constant change as the historical law, the Orthodox believed in resisting all change. Orthodox was a reverse image of Reform in every way. For the Orthodox, God only revealed himself in the eternal unchanging truths given at Sinai.

Seeking middle ground between the two extremes, Conservative Judaism arose among Jews who were sympathetic to the modern intellectual worldview of Reform Judaism but were also committed to the Orthodox way of life. Conservative Judaism has been the most influential and popular form of modern Judaism in America.

In response to the discrimination of Jews in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, three major forms of secular Judaism formed in the twentieth century: Jewish Socialism, Ethnic (Yiddish) Judaism, and Jewish Zionism. Of these three, Zionism took the most extreme position in solving once and for all the  centuries of persecution and rejection in a world where Jews could not be safe anywhere—Jews needed a state of their own where they could protect themselves. Zionism, as a philosophy and action, took off after the Holocaust when it was more evident than ever that Jews could never count on being treated as equals in Europe.


Postmodern Trends


The Holocaust took the meaning of persecution, exile, and despair to a new devastating level for Jews. Still, following the pattern of exile and return, Jews once again found hope—this time in the creation of the State of Israel in 1948.

What characterizes post-Holocaust Judaism is its postmodern attitude toward pluralism in the practice of Judaism. After the Holocaust, some post-Holocaust Jewish theologians argue, all Jews are obligated to accept each other in all their diversity. Such Jews see the holy and the secular as complementary, and they see historical change as the medium through which God reveals himself in time.


Judaism Chapter 10 from Brodd


Multiple-Choice Questions


  1. The biblical “Patriarchs” are
  2. Abraham
  3. Isaac
  4. Jacob
  5. All of the above


  1. Solomon’s Temple was built in
  2. Jerusalem
  3. Damascus
  4. Athens
  5. Rome


  1. The word “canon” refers to
  2. An artillery piece
  3. An arrangement of flowers
  4. A collection of sacred writings
  5. A type of animal sacrifice


  1. Masada was a
  2. City in southern Israel
  3. Roman general
  4. Mountain fortress
  5. King David’s royal palace


  1. The word halachah can be defined as
  2. An authoritative form of ritual behavior
  3. A type of pastry
  4. A form of male attire
  5. A special way of praying


  1. Ashkenazim are Jews who lived in
  2. Asia
  3. North Africa
  4. The Middle East
  5. Europe


  1. The author of the 13 articles of Jewish belief was
  2. Saadia ben Joseph
  3. Hillel
  4. Maimonides
  5. Moses Mendelssohn



  1. The “bible” of medieval Jewish mystics was
  2. The Mishnah
  3. The Zohar
  4. The Guide for the Perplexed
  5. The Book of Beliefs and Opinions


  1. The name “Baal Shem Tov” means
  2. “Peace be unto you”
  3. “A great miracle occurred here”
  4. “Master of the Good Name”
  5. “My name is Baal”


  1. The Reform Movement embraced the idea that Judaism is
  2. An unchanging religious culture
  3. An evolving religious culture
  4. An offshoot of Islam
  5. A substitute for Christianity


  1. Rabbi Mordecai Kaplan is associated with which movement in modern Judaism?
  2. The Conservative Movement
  3. Reconstructionism
  4. Orthodoxy
  5. Reform


  1. The word Shoah literally means
  2. Whirlwind
  3. Genocide
  4. Catastrophe
  5. The end of the world


  1. A mikveh is
  2. A ceremonial cup
  3. A ritual pool
  4. A good deed
  5. A forbidden food


  1. The word maschiach literally means
  2. King
  3. Chosen one
  4. Anointed one
  5. The last one


  1. Which of the following is not a major Jewish festival?
  2. Pesach
  3. Hanukkah
  4. Yom Kippur
  5. Shavuot
  6. On Sukkot it is customary to build a
  7. Bonfire
  8. Altar
  9. Pyramid
  10. Temporary hut


  1. A Seder is a
  2. Ceremonial meal
  3. Ritual bath
  4. Prayerbook
  5. Visit to someone’s home


  1. The Haggadah tells the story of
  2. The creation of the world
  3. The building of the Temple
  4. The Exodus from Egypt
  5. The destruction of the Temple


  1. Shavuot is a celebration of
  2. The Exodus from Egypt
  3. The giving of the Torah at Mt. Sinai
  4. Victory over Haman
  5. The fall harvest


  1. The Maccabean rebellion is celebrated on
  2. The ninth of Av
  3. Rosh Hashanah
  4. Purim
  5. Hanukkah


  1. On Erev Shabbat it is customary to eat
  2. Gefilte fish
  3. Challah
  4. Matzah
  5. Apples and honey


  1. In a Jewish wedding, the bride and groom stand under
  2. A tree
  3. An arch
  4. A canopy
  5. A bridge


  1. The initial period of mourning (shivah) for a deceased relative lasts
  2. 30 days
  3. A year
  4. 60 days
  5. 7 days


  1. The traditional prayer quorum (minyan) in Judaism is
  2. 10 men
  3. 20 men or women
  4. 30 men, women or children
  5. 10 women



  1. Which of the following foods is not kosher?
  2. Chicken
  3. Pork
  4. Carp
  5. Jello


  1. Traditionally, Jews pray
  2. Once a day
  3. Five times a day
  4. Once every other day
  5. Three times a day


  1. A tallit is a
  2. Prayer shawl
  3. Row of prayer beads
  4. Amulet
  5. Good-luck charm


  1. One of the most important prayers that declares the unity of God is
  2. The Kaddish
  3. The Kiddush
  4. The Shema
  5. Psalm 62



True/False Questions


  1. The prophet who led the Israelites out of Egypt was Moses.
  2. Jews commonly refer to their Scriptures as the “Old Testament.”
  3. The Septuagint is a translation of the Hebrew Bible into Latin.
  4. The term “eschatological” refers to a belief in an End-Time.
  5. Hillel taught a version of the “Golden Rule.”
  6. Jews commonly believe in the divinity of Jesus Christ.
  7. Sephardim are Jews who once lived in Spain and Portugal.
  8. The Zohar is a part of the Babylonian Talmud.
  9. The founder of the Hasidic movement was known as the Baal Shem Tov.
  10. Mordecai Kaplan was the founder of the Reconstructionist movement.
  11. Theodor Herzl was opposed to the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine.
  12. Judaism teaches a belief in many gods.
  13. The word Torah literally means “teaching.”
  14. It is impossible to convert to Judaism.
  15. Yom Kippur is the only holy day in the Jewish calendar.
  16. Shabbat is celebrated only on Saturday morning.
  17. Jews are traditionally free to eat anything they like.

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