steam engines

The early steam engines were driven by the atmospheric pressure acting on the piston fitted into a cylinder filled with saturated steam. A vacuum was created in the cylinder by cooling the cylinder externally with cold water, and thus condensing the steam. Consider a piston–cylinder device with a piston surface area of 0.1 m2 initially filled with 0.05 m3 of saturated water vapor at the atmospheric pressure of 100 kPa. Now cold water is poured outside the cylinder, and the steam inside starts condensing as a result of heat transfer to the cooling water outside. If the piston is stuck at its initial position, determine the friction force acting on the piston and the amount of heat transfer when the temperature inside the cylinder drops to 30°C.



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