The Effects of Agency: Entrepreneurs, Leaders, Advocates, Experts: how far individual actors can shape policy-making processes, how ideas of agency fit into the various theories of policy-making that have already been introduced earlier in the term and whether different approaches to agency—drawing on concepts such as entrepreneurship, leadership, and heresthetics—offer differing or fundamentally similar accounts.


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Task: Students will write one case report of 3,000 words (+/- 10%), which will analyse a particular case or set of cases of policy-making in light of the material covered in the module.
1. Main theme: The Effects of Agency: Entrepreneurs, Leaders, Advocates, Experts: how far individual actors can shape policy-making processes, how ideas of agency fit into the various theories of policy-making that have already been introduced earlier in the term and whether different approaches to agency—drawing on concepts such as entrepreneurship, leadership, and heresthetics—offer differing or fundamentally similar accounts.
Discussion and Essay Questions
• To what extent can the skilful exercise of individual agency make a difference to policy outcomes?
• Is the concept of ‘heresthetics’ any different from any of the other concepts used to describe the mechanisms by which individuals can seek to shape policy?
Readings
Introductory:
• Renwick, Alan (2010). The Politics of Electoral Reform: Changing the Rules of Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 69–79.
Agency in the core theories of agenda-setting (please refer also to the readings for week 3):
• Mintrom, Michael (1997). “Policy Entrepreneurs and the Diffusion of Innovation.” American Journal of Political Science 41, no. 3 (July), 738–70.
• Mintrom, Michael, and Phillipa Norman (2009). “Policy Entrepreneurship and Policy Change.” Policy Studies Journal 37, no. 4 (November), 649–67.
• Pralle, Sarah B. (2003). “Venue Shopping, Political Strategy, and Policy Change: The Internationalization of Canadian Forest Advocacy”. Journal of Public Policy 23, no. 3 (September), 233–60.
• Roberts, Nancy C., and Paula J. King (1991). “Policy Entrepreneurs: Their Activity Structure and Function in the Policy Process.” Journal of Public Administration Theory and Research 1, no. 2 (April), 147–75.
• Schneider, Mark, and Paul Teske (1992). “Toward a Theory of the Political Entrepreneur: Evidence from Local Government.” American Political Science Review 86, no. 3 (September), 737–47.
Sheingate, Adam D. (2000). “Agricultural Retrenchment Revisited: Issue Definition and Venue Change in the United States and European Union”. Governance 13, no. 3, 335–63.
Heresthetics:
• Riker, William H. (1984). “The Heresthetics of Constitution-Making: The Presidency in 1789, with Comments on Determinism and Rational Choice.” American Political Science Review 78, no. 1 (March), 1–16.
• Riker, William H. (1986). The Art of Political Manipulation. New Haven: Yale University Press.
• McLean, Iain (2002). “Review Article: William H. Riker and the Invention of Heresthetic(s)”. British Journal of Political Science 32, 535–58.
• Nagel, Jack H. (1993). “Populism Heresthetics and Political Stability: Richard Seddon and the Art of Majority Rule.” British Journal of Political Science 23, no. 2 (April), 139–74.
Leadership:
• Blondel, Jean (1987). Political Leadership: Towards a General Analysis. London: Sage.
• Edinger, Lewis J. (1975). “The Comparative Analysis of Political Leadership”. Comparative Politics 7, no. 2 (January), 253-269.
• Hargrove, Erwin C. (1966). Presidential Leadership: Personality and Political Style. New York: Macmillan.
• Cronin, Thomas E., and Michael A. Genovese (2010). The Paradoxes of the American Presidency, 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.



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