The importance of Israeli influence in the United States and how it impacts decisions made in the region


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Here are the instructions and notes:For my subject I would like to examine the importance of Israeli influence in the United States and how it impacts decisions made in the region. I would like to examine the Israeli lobby and would reference Mearsheimer and Walt who examined in their book, The Israel Lobby and US Foreign Policy.
I think that it is an important area of Israel foreign policy that we exam the US lobby. I would like to see the effects that AIPAC and other lobby groups have had. Mearsheimer and Walt wrote their book in 2006 and I think that it is obvious that in some ways allegiances have shifted. I really would like to look at the effect that someone like Jon Stewart of the Daily Show and other American-Jewish personalities may play when it comes to the contributions that AIPAC recieves and therefore how support for Israels foreign policy resonates in the US. So, prelimarly I would like to say as a Hypothesis that= As public support for Israel increases in the US the more unhibited Israeli military action becomes. Or something to that effect. Qualitatively I will use public polling of which I believe there may be alot. I will use quantitative numbers of funds that the lobbys use and more than anything else I will look at the politicians in the US that issue the most support for Israel and its foreign policy.
More than anything with my paper I want to show how important it is to Israel to keep the US citizenry supporting Israeli foreign policy.
-Research Project: All students will write a seminar paper (~8,000-10,000 words) that is due by email before May 5th 12:00pm (noon) in pdf format. Paper topics will be chosen by students in consultation with the professor, or selected from among a number of prompts. These papers must be empirical in nature. The annotated bibliographies will assist students with coming up with responses to the final research project.
The research project will also follow the APSA study guidelines.
-Must have a complete bibliography
-I have already turned in the following two annotated bibliographies.
1.
The Importance of Israeli Influence in the United States and How It Impacts Decisions Made in the Region: The Israeli Lobby
Craig M. Martin
University of Nebraska Omaha
The Importance of Israeli Influence in the United States and How It Impacts Decisions Made in the Region: The Israeli Lobby
Annotated Bibliography:
1. Cite: Fleshler, Dan (2009). Transforming America’s Israel Lobby: The Limits of Its Power and the Potential for Change. Potomac Books, Washington, D.C.
Summary:
In his book, Fleshler looks at how America’s Israel lobby serves as the main tool of sustaining a status quo between the two countries. According to him, this relationship has been harmful to the United States, and deadly to Israel and its Arab neighbors.
Assessment:
This book highlights various obstacles to the implementation of an alternative to the America’s Israel lobby. However, it only emphasizes on the negative side of America’s support of Israel’s policies. It does not see anything positive in this relationship.
Notes:
This source can be used to support the view that the United States should not blindly support Israeli’s policies. It should rather adopt an evenhanded foreign policy when dealing with the Middle East.
2. Cite: Mearsheimer, John J. and Stephen M. Walt (2008). The Israel Lobby and U.s. Foreign Policy. Penguin, London.
Summary:
This book enlightens the reader on the basis on which the United States’ relationship with Israel’s lobby is built. It also shows how America’s support of the Israel lobby affects its foreign policy.
Assessment:
The book shows that the United States’ support of Israel’s policies has put its long-term security and that of Israel at a risk. However, the book does not give a suggestion on how Israel should relate with the United States.
Notes:
This book can be used to show how the United States’ pro-Israel lobby leads to the creation of a damaging foreign policy.
3. Cite: Mearsheimer, John and Stephen Walt (2006). The Israel Lobby. London Review of Books, 28 (6): 3-12.
Summary:
Mearsheimer and Walt show that since the Six Day War of the year 1967, the United States’ Middle East Policy has been dominated by its relationship with Israel. This relationship has seen America supporting Israel both financially and diplomatically for many years.
Assessment:
This article provides important information on how America’s relationship with Israel and its support of democracy in the Middle East Israel has inflamed the Arab World. However, it fails to show whether the relationship between the two sides is based on compelling moral obligations or shared strategic interests.
Notes:
Mearsheimer and Walt’s article can be used to show how the relationship between Israel and the United States jeopardizes the security of the two countries and that of the entire world.
4. Cite: Stephens, Elizabeth (2006). Us Policy Toward Israel: The Role of Political Culture in Defining the ‘special Relationship.’ Sussex Academic Press, Brighton.
Summary:
In this book, Stephens examines the relationship between Israel and the United States since 1948. He analyzes the principles on which this kind of relationship is based. According to him, the United States’ policy towards Israel is engaging and it is directed by measured kinds of judgments.
Assessment:
This source provides new ways of understanding the special relationship between the United States and Israel. However, it does not show how this relationship influences America’s foreign policy towards the Middle East.
Notes:
This book can be used to highlight various political, economic, social, cultural, historical and religious factors that influence the special relationship that exists between the United States and Israel.
5. Cite: Quandt, William B. (2010). Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict since 1967. Brookings Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Summary:
This book describes the United States’ foreign policy towards the Middle East since the year 1967. It looks at the role played by various American presidents in addressing the Arab-Israel conflict.
Assessment:
Quandt underscores the fact that American has adopted a biased foreign policy that favors Israel and discriminates the Arab countries of the region. However, he has not clearly shown why America uses such a policy.
Notes:
This source can be used to examine whether the United States’ foreign policy towards the countries of the Middle East is influenced by its long-term relationship with Israel. It can be used to show why the United States’ foreign policy to the region should change.
6. Cite: Azar, Khalil T. (2011). American Foreign Policy and Its’ Link to Terrorism in the Middle East. AuthorHouse, Bloomington.
Summary:
In this book, Azar shows how the Israel lobby tends to distort the United States’ Middle East foreign policy. According to him, the lobby is the main cause of increased terrorism in the region.
Assessment:
This source helps to show how the relationship between the United States and Israel sets a stage for anti-American attitudes to flourish in the Arab and Muslim countries. However, it does not provide an alternative to the “distorted” Middle East policy adopted by the United States.
Notes:
This book can be used to show how the Israel lobby influences the formation of America’s foreign policy towards the Middle East. It can also be used to show how America’s pro-Israel lobby has contributed to terrorism in the Middle East.
7. Cite: Talaykurt, Mehmet (2011). Position of the Israel Lobby in the United States’ Political System: Influences of the Israel Lobby on the U.S. Foreign and Domestic Policy. Saarbrucken, Germany, LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.
Summary:
This source examines the importance of Israel’s lobby to the political system of the United States. It shows how the lobby influences the formulation of America’s foreign policy towards the Middle East.
Assessment:
This book highlights the successes and failures of Israel lobby. However, overemphasizes the political factors that influence the special relationship between American and Israel.
Notes:
This book can be used to show that the main function of Israel lobby is to maintain a positive relationship between Israel and America. It can also be used to show how the lobby influences the political decisions of the United States.
8. Cite: Seager, Frederic and Haim Ben-Asher (2010). The Zionist Illusion. iUniverse, Bloomington.
Summary:
In their book, Seager and Ben-Asher argue that the United States’ pro-Israel lobby has a decisive influence on its foreign policy. According to them, the lobby is able to achieve its objectives as a result of being well organized and financed.
Assessment:
This source helps to show how the United States’ relationship with the Middle East is influenced by pro-Israel policies. However, it has not shown how America can adopt an independent Middle East policy.
Notes:
This book can be used to show how the pro-Israel lobby is harmful to the United States’ interests in the Middle East. It can also be used to demonstrate the importance of adopting a balanced foreign policy that can be favorable to both Israel and Palestine.
9. Cite: Roy, Sara (2010). Reflections on the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict in U.S. Public Discourse: Legitimizing Dissent. Journal of Palestine Studies, 39 (2): 23-38.
Summary:
This article shows that the culture of intimidation that previously hindered America from seeking a solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has started to change. This change can be felt in the academic environment, policy circles and within the civil society.
Assessment:
This article underscores the importance of questioning the legitimacy of Israel lobby in influencing the United States’ foreign police in the Middle East. However, it does not provide a meaningful framework that can support such efforts.
Notes:
This source can be used to shows that the United States needs to re-examine its relationship with Israel. It should not use the Israel lobby to justify the way it relates with Israel’s Arab neighbors.
10. Cite: Mearsheimer, John J. and Stephen M. Walt (2006). The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy. Middle East Policy, 13 (3): 29–87
Summary:
In their study, Mearsheimer and Walt suggest that the relationship between Israel and America is due to the role of an American interest group. The group is made up of members of both the Jewish community and non-Jewish community.
Assessment:
This article shows that the special relationship between the United States and Israel is harmful to the interests of the two countries. However, it overlooks other important alternative factors influencing the relationship between America and Israel.
Notes:
This source can be used to explain why America favors an uneven-handed Middle East policy. It can also be used to highlight the negative effects of America’s relationship with Israel.
11. Cite: Mearsheimer, John J. and Stephen M. Walt (2009). Is It Love or The Lobby? Explaining America’s Special Relationship with Israel. Security Studies, 18 (1): 58-78.
Summary:
In this article, Mearsheimer and Walt argue that the special relationship between Israel and the United States mainly arises from the influence of Israel lobby. They refute their earlier claim that the relationship influenced by an American interest group that consists both Jews and non-Jews.
Assessment:
This source helps the reader to understand that public opinion in America cannot be used to explain why the country unconditionally supports Israel. However, the source exaggerates the influence of the Israel lobby on the executive branch of the American government.
Notes:
This article can be used to explain why the United States favors Israel over other countries of the Middle East.
12. Cite: Koplow, Michael J. (2011). Value Judgment: Why Do Americans Support Israel? Security Studies, 20 (2): 266-302.
Volume 20, Issue 2
Summary:
In his study, Koplow argues that America’s support to the United States is influenced by domestic politics. According to him, the strong relationship between the two countries cannot be explained by the role played by the pro-Israel lobby.
Assessment:
This article demonstrates the fact that the United States’ foreign policy towards Israel is mainly driven by public opinion. It however, does not provide information on how the relationship between the two countries influences America’s foreign policy to the Arab countries of the Middle East.
Notes:
This source can be used to support the view that the United States’ relationship with the Middle East is influenced by ideological factors rather than the strategic ones.



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