the mass flow rate

Design a scalding unit for slaughtered chickens to loosen their feathers before they are routed to feather-picking machines with a capacity of 1200 chickens per hour under the following conditions: The unit will be of an immersion type filled with hot water at an average temperature of 53°C at all times. Chicken with an average mass of 2.2 kg and an average temperature of 36°C will be dipped into the tank, held in the water for 1.5 min, and taken out by a slow-moving conveyor. The chicken is expected to leave the tank 15 percent heavier as a result of the water that sticks to its surface. The center-to center distance between chickens in any direction will be at least 30 cm. The tank can be as wide as 3 m and as high as 60 cm. The water is to be circulated through and heated by a natural gas furnace, but the temperature rise of water will not exceed 5°C as it passes through the furnace. The water loss is to be made up by the city water at an average temperature of 16°C. The walls and the floor of the tank are well-insulated. The unit operates 24 h a day and 6 days a week. Assuming reasonable values for the average properties, recommend reasonable values for (a) the mass flow rate of the makeup water that must be supplied to the tank, (b) the rate of heat transfer from the water to the chicken, in kW, (c) the size of the heating system in kJ/h, and (d) the operating cost of the scalding unit per month for a unit cost of $1.12/therm of natural gas.

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